Red Hat RH302 ExamRed Hat Certified Engineer on Redhat Enterprise Linux 5 (Labs)

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Create the directory /archive and group owner should be the sysuser group.

Answer and Explanation:

1. chgrp sysuser /archive

2. Verify using ls -ld /archive command. You should get like

drwxr-x--- 2 root sysadmin 4096 Mar 16 17:59 /archive

chgrp command is used to change the group ownership of particular files or directory.

Another way you can use the chown command.

chown root:sysuser /archive


You are a System administrator. Using Log files very easy to monitor the system. Now there are 50 servers running as Mail, Web, Proxy, DNS services etc. You want to centralize the logs from all servers into on LOG Server. How will you configure the LOG Server to accept logs from remote host ?

Answer and Explanation:

By Default system accept the logs only generated from local host. To accept the Log from other host configure:

1. vi /etc/sysconfig/syslog



-m 0 disables 'MARK' messages.

-r enables logging from remote machines

-x disables DNS lookups on messages recieved with -r

2. service syslog restart


Add a job on Cron schedule to display Hello World on every two Seconds in terminal 8.

Answer and Explanation:cat >schedule

*/2 * * * * /bin/echo "Hello World" >/dev/tty8crontab scheduleVerify using: crontab -lservice crond restart

Cron helps to schedule on recurring events. Pattern of Cron is:

Minute Hour Day of Month Month Day of Week Commands

0-59 0-23 1-31 1-12 0-7 where 0 and 7 means Sunday.

Note * means every. To execute the command on every two minutes */2.

To add the scheduled file on cron job: crontab filename

To List the Cron Shedule: crontab -l

To Edit the Schedule: crontab -e

To Remove the Schedule: crontab -r


Allow the NFS service only to,

Answer and Explanation:

1. vi /etc/hosts.deny

nfs,portmap:ALL EXCEPT,

We can secure the services using tcp_wrappers. There are main two files, /etc/hosts.allow and /etc/hosts.deny.

There will be three stage access checking

-Is access explicitly permitted? Means permitted from /etc/hosts.allow?

- Otherwise, Is access explicitly denied? Means denied from /etc/hosts.deny?

- Otherwise, by default permit access if neither condition matched.

To deny the services we can configure /etc/hosts.deny file using ALL and EXCEPT operation.

Pattern of /etc/hosts.allow and /etc/hosts.deny file is:


In Client list can be either domain name or IP address.


You have a domain in your LAN Configure to allow login to jack only from

Answer and Explanation:

1. vi /etc/security/access.conf


2. vi /etc/pam.d/system-auth

account required /lib/security/

/etc/security/access.conf file helps to allow or deny login to users on the basis of origin.

Syntax of /etc/security/access.conf

permission : users : origins

The first field should be a "+" (access granted) or "-" (access denied) character.

The second field should be a list of one or more login names, group names, or ALL (always matches). A pattern of the form user@host is matched when the login name matches the "user" part, and when the "host" part matches the local machine name.

The third field should be a list of one or more tty names (for non-networked logins), host names, domain names (begin with "."), host addresses, internet network numbers (end with "."), ALL (always matches) or LOCAL (matches any string that does not contain a "." character).

The EXCEPT operator makes it possible to write very compact rules


Create a RAID Device /dev/md0 by creating equal two disks from available free space on your harddisk and mount it on /data.

Answer and Explanation:

Redhat Enterprise Linux 5 Supports the RAID LEVEL 0, RAID LEVEL 1, RAID LEVEL 5 and RAID LEVEL 6 at installation time. You can create it at installation time later no need to type lots of commands for RAID.

At Installation Time:Create the partitions using diskdruid.Create the Partitions having File system

Type Software RAID.Click on RAID buttonType the Mount PointSelect File system typeSelect

RAID LevelSelect Partitions/disks as a member of RAID.Click on ok

After Installation: We can create the RAID Device after Installation on command-line.

1. Create the Two partitions having equal size. (Specify the Size using Cylinder, find the remaining cylinder and divide by 2).

2. Change the Partition ID to fd (Linux raid Autodetect) by typing t.

3. Type w à To write on partitions table.

4. Use partprobe command to synchronic the partition table.

5. Use: mdadm --create /dev/md0 --level=1 --raid-devices=2 /dev/hda? /dev/hda?

6. Verify the RAID: mdadm --detail /dev/md0

7. mkfs -t ext3 /dev/md0

8. mount /dev/md0 /data

9. vi /etc/fstab

/dev/md0 /data ext3 defaults 0 0

10. Verify mounting devices using mount command.


You have ftp site named You want to deny login as an anonymous on your ftp site. Configure to deny the anonymous.

Answer and Explanation:

1. vi /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf


2. service vsftpd restart

/etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf file is used to allow or deny to anonymous or real user. To allow anonymous anonymous_enable=yes should be there. Sample configuration is like.

# Allow anonymous FTP? (Beware - allowed by default if you comment this out).



# Uncomment this to allow local users to log in.



# Uncomment this to enable any form of FTP write command.



# Default umask for local users is 077. You may wish to change this to 022,

# if your users expect that (022 is used by most other ftpd's)



# Uncomment this to allow the anonymous FTP user to upload files. This only

# has an effect if the above global write enable is activated. Also, you will

# obviously need to create a directory writable by the FTP user.



# Uncomment this if you want the anonymous FTP user to be able to create

# new directories.



# Activate directory messages - messages given to remote users when they

# go into a certain directory.



# Activate logging of uploads/downloads.



# Make sure PORT transfer connections originate from port 20 (ftp-data).



# If you want, you can arrange for uploaded anonymous files to be owned by

# a different user. Note! Using "root" for uploaded files is not

# recommended!




# You may override where the log file goes if you like. The default is shown

# below.



# If you want, you can have your log file in standard ftpd xferlog format



# You may change the default value for timing out an idle session.



# You may change the default value for timing out a data connection.



# It is recommended that you define on your system a unique user which the

# ftp server can use as a totally isolated and unprivileged user.



# Enable this and the server will recognise asynchronous ABOR requests. Not

# recommended for security (the code is non-trivial). Not enabling it,

# however, may confuse older FTP clients.



# By default the server will pretend to allow ASCII mode but in fact ignore

# the request. Turn on the below options to have the server actually do ASCII

# mangling on files when in ASCII mode.

# Beware that turning on ascii_download_enable enables malicious remote parties

# to consume your I/O resources, by issuing the command "SIZE /big/file" in

# ASCII mode.

# These ASCII options are split into upload and download because you may wish

# to enable ASCII uploads (to prevent uploaded scripts etc. from breaking),

# without the DoS risk of SIZE and ASCII downloads. ASCII mangling should be

# on the client anyway..




# You may fully customise the login banner string:

#ftpd_banner=Welcome to blah FTP service.


# You may specify a file of disallowed anonymous e-mail addresses. Apparently

# useful for combatting certain DoS attacks.


# (default follows)



# You may specify an explicit list of local users to chroot() to their home

# directory. If chroot_local_user is YES, then this list becomes a list of

# users to NOT chroot().


# (default follows)



# You may activate the "-R" option to the builtin ls. This is disabled by

# default to avoid remote users being able to cause excessive I/O on large

# sites. However, some broken FTP clients such as "ncftp" and "mirror" assume

# the presence of the "-R" option, so there is a strong case for enabling it.




#enable for standalone mode




Install the dialog-*

Answer and Explanation:

Questions asking you to install the dialog package from the server. In your Lab FTP server as well as NFS server are configured. You can install either through FTP or NFS.

1. Just Login to through FTP: ftp

2. Enter to pub directory: cd pub

3. Enter to RedHat/RPMS: cd RedHat/RPMS

4. Download the Package: mget dialog-*

5. Logout from the FTP server: bye

6. Install the package: rpm -ivh dialog-*

7. Verify the package either installed or not: rpm -q dialog


Install the Cron Schedule for jeff user to display "Hello" on daily 5:30.

Answer and Explanation:

Login as a root usercat >schedule.txt

30 05 * * * /bin/echo "Hello"

3. crontab -u jeff schedule.txt

4. service crond restart

The cron system is essentially a smart alarm clock. When the alarm sounds, Linux runs the commands of your choice automatically. You can set the alarm clock to run at all sorts of regular time intervals. Alternatively, the at system allows you to run the command of your choice once, at a specified time in the future.

Red Hat configured the cron daemon, crond. By default, it checks a series of directories for jobs to run, every minute of every hour of every day. The crond checks the /var/spool/cron directory for jobs by user. It also checks for scheduled jobs for the computer under /etc/crontab and in the /etc/cron.d directory.

Here is the format of a line in crontab. Each of these columns is explained in more detail:

#minute, hour, day of month, month, day of week, command

* * * * * command


You are giving the debug RHCT exam. The examiner told you that the password of root is redhat.

When you tried to login displays the error message and redisplayed the login screen. You changed the root password, again unable to login as a root. How will you make Successfully Login as a root.

Answer and Explanation:

When root unable to login into the system think:

1. Is password correct?

2. Is account expired?

3. Is terminal Blocked?

Do these Steps:Boot the System on Single user mode.Change the passwordCheck the account expire date by using chage -l root command.

If account is expired, set net expire date: chage -E "NEVER" root

1. Check the file /etc/securetty à Which file blocked to root login from certain terminal.

2. If terminal is deleted or commented write new or uncomment.

3. Reboot the system and login as a root.

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