Amazon AWS-Certified-DevOps-Engineer-Professional ExamAmazon AWS Certified DevOps Engineer Professional

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Q21. You are building a deployment system on AWS. You will deploy new code by bootstrapping instances in a private subnet in a VPC at runtime using UserData scripts pointing to an S3 zip file object, where your code is stored. An ELB in a public subnet has network interfaces and connectMty to the instances.  Requests from users of the system are routed to the ELB via a Route53 A Record Alias. You do not use  any VPC endpoints. Which is a risk of using this approach?

A. Route53 Alias records do not always update dynamically with ELB network changes after deploys.

B. If the NAT routing for the private subnet fails, deployments fail.

C. Kernel changes to the base AMI may render the code inoperable.

D. The instances cannot be in a private subnet if the ELB is in a public one. 

Answer: B

Explanation:

Since you are not using VPC endpoints, outbound requests for the code sitting in S3 are routed though the NAT for the VPC's private subnets. If this networking fails, runtime bootstrapping through code

download will fail due to network unavailability and lack of access to the Internet, and thus Amazon S3. Reference:        http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonVPC/latest/UserGuide/VPC_NAT_Instance.html


Q22. For AWS Auto Scaling, what is the first transition state a new instance enters after leaving steady state when scaling out due to increased load?

A. EnteringStandby

B. Pending

C. Terminating:Wait

D. Detaching 

Answer: B

Explanation:

When a scale out event occurs, the Auto Scaling group launches the required number of EC2 instances, using its assigned launch configuration. These instances start in the Pending state. If you add a lifecycle hook to your Auto Scaling group, you can perform a custom action here. For more information, see Lifecycle Hooks.

Reference: http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AutoScaling/latest/DeveIoperGuide/AutoScaIingGroupLifecycIe.html


Q23. You need to know when you spend $1000 or more on AWS. What's the easy way for you to see that notification?

A. AWS CIoudWatch Events tied to API calls, when certain thresholds are exceeded, publish to SNS.

B. Scrape the billing page periodically and pump into Kinesis.

C. AWS CIoudWatch Metrics + Billing Alarm + Lambda event subscription. When a threshold is exceeded, email the manager.

D. Scrape the billing page periodically and publish to SNS. 

Answer: C

Explanation:

Even if you're careful to stay within the free tier, it's a good idea to create a billing alarm to notify you if you exceed the limits of the free tier. Billing alarms can help to protect you against unknowingly accruing charges if you inadvertently use a service outside of the free tier or if traffic exceeds your expectations. Reference:        http://docs.aws.amazon.com/awsaccountbilling/latest/aboutv2/free-tier-aIarms.htmI


Q24. You need to migrate 10 million records in one hour into DynamoDB. All records are 1.5KB in size. The data is evenly distributed across the partition key. How many write capacity units should you provision during this batch load?

A. 6667

B. 4166

C. 5556

D. 2778

Answer:

Explanation:

You need 2 units to make a 1.5KB write, since you round up. You need 20 million total units to perform this load. You have 3600 seconds to do so. DMde and round up for 5556.

Reference: http://docs.aws.amazon.com/amazondynamodb/latest/developerguide/HowItWorks.ProvisionedThroughp ut.htmI


Q25. Which major database needs a BYO license?

A. PostgreSQL

B. NIariaDB

C. MySQL

D. Oracle 

Answer: D

Explanation:

Oracle is not open source, and requires a bring your own license model.

Reference:       http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonRDS/latest/UserGuide/CHAP_OracIe.htm|


Q26. You need to create a simple, holistic check for your system's general availablity and uptime. Your system presents itself as an HTTP-speaking API. What is the most simple tool on AWS to achieve this with?

A. Route53 Health Checks

B. CIoudWatch Health Checks

C. AWS ELB Health Checks

D. EC2 Health Checks 

Answer: A

Explanation:

You can create a health check that will run into perpetuity using Route53, in one API call, which will ping your service via HTTP every 10 or 30 seconds.

Amazon Route 53 must be able to establish a TCP connection with the endpoint within four seconds. In addition, the endpoint must respond with an HTTP status code of 200 or greater and less than 400 within two seconds after connecting.

Reference:

http://docs.aws.amazon.com/Route53/latest/DeveIoperGuide/dns-failover-determining-health-of-endpoint s.htmI


Q27. You are building out a layer in a software stack on AWS that needs to be able to scale out to react to increased demand as fast as possible. You are running the code on EC2 instances in an Auto Scaling Group behind an ELB. Which application code deployment method should you use?

A. SSH into new instances that come online, and deploy new code onto the system by pulling it from an S3 bucket, which is populated by code that you refresh from source control on new pushes.

B. Bake an AMI when deploying new versions of code, and use that AMI for the Auto Scaling Launch Configuration.

C. Create a Dockerfile when preparing to deploy a new version to production and publish it to S3. Use UserData in the Auto Scaling Launch configuration to pull down the Dockerfile from S3 and run it when new instances launch.

D. Create a new Auto Scaling Launch Configuration with UserData scripts configured to pull the latest code at all times.

Answer:

Explanation:

the bootstrapping process can be slower if you have a complex application or multiple applications to install. Managing a fileet of applications with several build tools and dependencies can be a challenging task during rollouts. Furthermore, your deployment service should be designed to do faster rollouts to take advantage of Auto Scaling.

Reference:        https://d0.awsstatic.com/whitepapers/overview-of-deployment-options-on-aws.pdf


Q28. For AWS CloudFormation, which is true?

A. Custom resources using SNS have a default timeout of 3 minutes.

B. Custom resources using SNS do not need a <code>ServiceToken</code> property.

C. Custom resources using Lambda and <code>Code.ZipFiIe</code> allow inline nodejs resource composition.

D. Custom resources using Lambda do not need a <code>ServiceToken</code>property 

Answer: C

Explanation:

Code is a property of the AWS::Lambda::Function resource that enables to you specify the source code of an AWS Lambda (Lambda) function. You can point to a file in an Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) bucket or specify your source code as inline text (for nodejs runtime environments only). Reference:

http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSCIoudFormation/latest/UserGuide/template-custom-resources.html


Q29. Why are more frequent snapshots or EBS Volumes faster?

A. Blocks in EBS Volumes are allocated lazily, since while logically separated from other EBS Volumes, Volumes often share the same physical hardware. Snapshotting the first time forces full block range allocation, so the second snapshot doesn't need to perform the allocation phase and is faster.

B. The snapshots are incremental so that only the blocks on the device that have changed after your last snapshot are saved in the new snapshot.

C. AWS provisions more disk throughput for burst capacity during snapshots if the drive has been pre-warmed by snapshotting and reading all blocks.

D. The drive is pre-warmed, so block access is more rapid for volumes when every block on the device has already been read at least one time.

Answer:

Explanation:

After writing data to an EBS volume, you can periodically create a snapshot of the volume to use as a baseline for new volumes or for data backup. If you make periodic snapshots of a volume, the snapshots are incremental so that only the blocks on the device that have changed after your last snapshot are saved in the new snapshot. Even though snapshots are saved incrementally, the snapshot deletion process is designed so that you need to retain only the most recent snapshot in order to restore the volume.

Reference:        http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSEC2/latest/UserGuide/ebs-creating-snapshot.html


Q30. You want to pass queue messages that are 1GB each. How should you achieve this?

A. Use Kinesis as a buffer stream for message bodies. Store the checkpoint id for the placement in the Kinesis Stream in SQS.

B. Use the Amazon SQS Extended Client Library for Java and Amazon S3 as a storage mechanism for message bodies.

C. Use SQS's support for message partitioning and multi-part uploads on Amazon S3.

D. Use AWS EFS as a shared pool storage medium. Store filesystem pointers to the files on disk in the SQS message bodies.

Answer:

Explanation:

You can manage Amazon SQS messages with Amazon S3. This is especially useful for storing and retrieving messages with a message size of up to 2 GB. To manage Amazon SQS messages with Amazon S3, use the Amazon SQS Extended Client Library for Java.

Reference:

http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSSimpIeQueueService/latest/SQSDeveIoperGuide/s3-messages.html


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